The palaeontological collection comprises about 4,1 million objects. The focus is on finds from Baden-Württemberg, with rich material from famous fossil lagerstätten (Kupferzell, Holzmaden, Nusplingen, Randecker Maar) as well as outstanding individual finds (e.g. Steinheim and Reilingen prehistoric human skulls). The internationally important amber collection focuses on finds from the Dominican Republic. The paleontological collection is visited annually by numerous guest scientists and is an essential basis for the own research, in which taphonomic features are recorded and analysed by means of targeted scientific excavations.